For people using IVF, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) help ensure healthier and more successful pregnancies by looking for genetic defects in embryos. IVF with PGD success rates are higher than IVF alone.
Varicoceles are found in 35% of men with primary infertility and 75-81% of men with secondary infertility. They are one of the most common causes of male infertility, and men with varicoceles frequently have a smaller testicular volume, reduced sperm count, and impaired sperm quality.
Azoospermia is the complete absence of any sperm in a man’s semen. It is found in 5-10% of men who seek infertility treatment. Consequently, azoospermia is a major cause of male infertility.
Female fertility testing is considered appropriate when a woman under 35 has not become pregnant after a year of trying (with regular, unprotected intercourse), or a woman over 35 has not become pregnant after 6 months of trying.
PCOS, or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, is an endocrine disorder and a leading cause of infertility in women. PCOS is a collection of issues and not all women have the same symptoms. Women with PCOS usually experience two of the following: ovulatory dysfunction, high levels of androgens (sometimes referred to as male hormones), and poly cystic ovaries.
When Conrad Waddington coined the term “epigenetics” in the early 1940s, the name was used to explain why genetic variations often did not lead to phenotypic variations and how genes might actually also interact with their environment to yield a phenotype. Since then there has been increasing debate and skepticism leading to polarization within the scientific research community regarding how these epigenetic changes could be passed through multiple generations without any changes occurring in the DNA.
Infertility treatments can be costly, and are not always guaranteed to work. Because there are several kinds of treatment options, and each option has a variable success rate that depends on factors like the patient’s age and health, finding information on how likely a procedure is to work for you can be difficult. Furthermore, because every treatment clinic has different prices, and insurance companies don’t always cover the cost of fertility treatments, the cost of any particular procedure can vary widely across a single city – let alone across the country.
If you’re struggling to get pregnant or already have a diagnosis of infertility, you’ve probably heard a variety of stories about fertility drugs tossed around. But what are they, and what can they do?